Earlier in the week I posted on Vitamin B2 as part of the Vitamins and Minerals of the week series. One of the roles of B2 is to improve the uptake of iron from the cells and the absorption of iron.
Research into anaemia has highlighted the role of B2 in the body’s inability to manufacture red blood cells. There are two areas that would appear to be particularly critical. One is the vitamin’s role in mobilising iron from storage to the cells and secondly that a deficiency prevents the efficient absorption of iron.
However Iron deficiency anaemia is only one of the most common types and one in particular is related to a deficiency of B-vitamins. Here is more on the subject of Anaemia.
There are actually several types of Anaemia but whilst there are a number of reasons as you will see for the blood disorder, I will focus on just two. Iron deficiency Anaemia and Pernicious Anaemia sometimes also known as Megaloblastic Anaemia. This anaemia is a vitamin deficiency anaemia and whilst requires medical supplementation of Vitamin B12 can still be supported by a healthy diet.
Iron deficiency Anaemia is one of the most common types and is usually associated with women. Mostly in pregnancy, but it can also affect women who have suffered heavy periods throughout their reproductive lives. As the name implies, it is caused by the lack of iron.
IRON:The main function of iron is in haemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying component of blood. When someone is iron deficient they suffer extreme fatigue because they are being starved of oxygen. Iron is also part of myoglobin which helps muscle cells store oxygen and it is also essential for the formation of ATP.
A deficiency can occur because you have not taken in sufficient iron through your diet but it is also a vicious circle. The more blood you lose the more red blood cells you lose. These red blood cells release the iron when they die, and it is absorbed back into the system. Women who sustain a lot of blood loss each month will have increasingly less red blood cells which will lead to an iron deficiency over time.
Pregnant women lose their store of iron to the foetus, which is why many are put on an iron supplement although they can take in sufficient with an appropriate diet.
There are also other causes of blood loss, such as surgery or internal bleeding, but there are some diseases such as chronic bowel problems that induce a slow loss of blood over a long period of time and this can lead to anaemia. If this is the case then you need to ensure that you visit your GP and ask for a blood test and do not take no for an answer. Chronic tiredness which is a symptom of anaemia always needs to be investigated.
Earlier in my blogs I wrote about Candida Albicans, a parasite that robs nutrients from your food for its own use. This means iron too. As a result, part of the chronic fatigue associated with Candida can be linked to mild forms of anaemia.
Of the two anaemias this one is wholly preventable and treatable with changes in diet and in some cases, supplementation.
The key to the diet is not just taking in iron in extra quantities and in fact it is not a good idea to suddenly rush off and grab yourself a bottle of iron tablets and start taking a handful as this can lead to chronic constipation. It is far better to start with adjusting your diet to include foods that are a good source of the mineral. If you need additional supplementation then you should follow the advice of a professional practitioner. I use liquid Spatone when I have had to supplement with iron in my reproductive years and it is gentler on the stomach and causes less side effects.
What is pernicious anaemia?
Pernicious Anaemia is actually a vitamin deficiency rather than an iron deficiency. As well as iron, your body needs B6, B12 and folic acid, or folate, to produce enough healthy red blood cells. If your diet is lacking in these, then you will have fewer red blood cells, and therefore less iron, and be anaemic.
Who is the most likely to suffer from this type of anaemia?
Both men and women suffer from this type of anaemia. In rare cases it can be genetic or congenital when someone is born with the inability to absorb Vitamin B12 from their diet. In this case although a healthy diet will support the sufferer they have to be treated with injections of B12 or large doses orally for the rest of their lives.
Diet plays an enormous part in the prevention and treatment of blood diseases. Today’s diet of processed foods, additives, chemicals and fad weight-loss plans are all contributing to the inability of our body to process the necessary and vital nutrients efficiently. I have worked with many people who decide that they are going to become vegetarian and have done so without finding appropriate substitutes for animal products that previously provided nutrients such as iron and the B vitamins. If you wish to become vegetarian then make sure that you are getting sufficient wholegrains, fermented soy products like miso or Tempeh and plenty of fresh fruit and green vegetables. There is plenty of advice online on how to change your diet safely so please take advantage of that.
In some anaemic patients it is the result of a disease or condition that prevents absorption of nutrients in general – such as Candida – Crohns disease or if someone is celiac. Anything that affects the small intestine will cause mal-absorption of nutrients and result in possible anaemia
Also, long-term medication, use of the pill, HRT and chemotherapy can have an effect on the way we absorb iron, B6, B12 and Folate. As I mentioned earlier, any blood-loss means that the iron that is normally recycled when cells die off naturally is not available. It is important that anyone who has been through an intensive a treatment for a disease such as cancer receives nutritional support afterwards to ensure that their diet is absolutely optimum for regaining healthy red blood cells.
What symptoms would someone experience if they were anaemic?
People will vary with the symptoms depending on the severity of the problem.
- Generally people will begin to feel very tired. As we have said the body is being deprived of one of its main energy sources – oxygen.
- Some may experience rapid heartbeats – perhaps find themselves getting breathless when they have not really over exerted themselves.
- There might be some chest pain associated with the symptoms – headaches or dizziness.
- Hands and feet can become numb and very cold.
- Nausea, causing loss of appetite and weight loss.
- Bleeding gums and a yellowish tinge to the skin and around the eyes.
What should you do if you feel that you might be anaemic?
If anyone is suffering from any of the symptoms above and is worried they should go and see their doctor and ask them to do a blood test. It would certainly either put their mind at rest or establish that there is a problem which can be easily treated – if necessary with a short term course of iron supplements or, if the problem is more serious, with injections. For dietary based anaemia or where it is only a temporary problem with absorption of B12 – diet and supplementation might be appropriate.
If the problem is a long term issue, as with pernicious anaemia, then the treatment usually consists of injections – daily to begin with, for a week or so, until the condition as stabilised and then as required, which might be monthly or three-monthly. If B12 is given orally it requires much higher dosages to ensure absorption but there is currently experimentation with sublingual supplementation.
You will find detailed information on the B-vitamins at the end of this week’s post on B2.
Iron is found in the following foods.
Shellfish such as cockles and mussels, liver, meat, poultry and fish. Mushrooms, apricots, cooked spinach (think Popeye) and rocket leaves, Peas and Beans, Olives, Asparagus and dark berries,
If you would like to find out more about blood then here is a link that leads to others in the series on the Circulatory System