Smorgasbord Health Column – Pre-diabetes, Blood Sugar Control – Chromium


health column final

Last week I posted about the epidemic levels of Pre-diabetes and today I am following up with a mineral that is contained in sufficient foods to include on a daily basis in your diet that helps to control blood sugar levels. And in my experience help to curb sugar cravings.

https://smorgasbordinvitation.wordpress.com/2018/01/30/smorgasbord-health-column-pre-diabetes-the-epidemic-that-goes-unreported/

Chromium.

Chromium is an essential trace mineral that helps the body maintain normal blood sugar levels. A deficiency of the mineral can lead to diabetes and this is where the primary research into this mineral has been directed.

Chromium first and foremost is a component of the ‘glucose tolerance factor’ which is required for maintaining a normal blood glucose balance. Chromium works with insulin to ease the absorption of blood glucose into the cells and it may also play a part in other activities that involve insulin such as the metabolism of fats and proteins.

This last activity has opened a line of research in the effect of chromium on weight loss, building muscle and decreasing body fat and has led to a lot of chromium based products being put on the market in recent years. There is no definite proof that it works although some studies do claim that in a study that people on chromium lost more body fat over three months than those who did not take it.

It is more important to look at the role of chromium as we age, as there is an increasing numbers of patients who are diagnosed with late onset diabetes. This is nearly always related to dietary deficiency and the concern is that with our current trend towards eating processed foods and excess weight are responsible as we are automatically taking in less chromium in raw and unprocessed foods.

Chromium is very easy to lose from the body in urine, sweat and if we engage in excessive physical activity without the appropriate diet. However, chromium is very easy to include in any healthy diet and should not be needed in supplement form.

Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar Levels.

There are still a number of studies looking at the effect of Chromium Picolinate on high blood pressure and the reasoning is that increased blood sugar does increase blood pressure. Additionally high levels of LDL or low density lipoprotein, which has small particles and when oxidised clumps and blocks the arteries, resulting in high blood pressure, may also be reduced by taking Chromium Picolinate. Hence the use of it in this form in supplements especially as it is more easily absorbed by our digestive tracts.

We do not manufacture or store chromium in the body so it is necessary to eat foods regularly that contain it. One concern however, is that the foods that we eat that contain chromium, might not be as rich in the mineral as they used to be. It depends on the levels of the mineral in the soil they are grown in which is variable, dependent on the area and farming methods in use.

Foods rich in dietary chromium.

vegetablesBroccoli has the highest levels of chromium followed by other dark green leafy vegetables, romaine lettuce, onions and tomatoes. Wholegrains, potatoes, oysters and other seafood, liver, cheese, chicken, turkey, beef and lamb also contain. As you can see there is plenty of foods that are usually included daily in our diet but only if we are cooking from scratch. If your diet is primarily industrially produced in a packet you may not be getting the chromium you need.

Just taking a supplement is not the answer and if you are pre-diabetic. The body is used to processing foods to obtain the nutrients that it needs and the first place to start is a review of your diet.

If you have a severe sugar craving then you might then look at taking a chromium supplement to work alongside your diet. Do buy a high quality supplement as they are not all as good for you as you might think.

https://smorgasbordinvitation.wordpress.com/2018/01/25/absorbing-the-nutrients-and-avoiding-the-additives/

If you are a diabetic then you must make sure that you work with your medical advisor before taking any chromium supplement, as it will affect the dosage of any insulin you may be taking.

If you have any questions then please put in the comments section or if you wish to ask me something privately then please email me. sally.cronin@moyhill.com

 

Smorgasbord Health – Nutrition in the news – Salt – we may have been getting it all wrong!


Smorgasbord Health 2017I have been a nutritional therapist for nearly 20 years, and one of the essential elements of my work has been to remain informed of new research as it becomes available. This has sometimes turned previously held beliefs on their head, and these latest findings from Dr. James DiNicolantonio certainly qualifies as that.

I have always watched my salt intake as high blood pressure has been a family health concern. I have also been obese for a great many years of my life and certainly have always struggled to maintain a healthy weight. I do not take any medication of any kind and I have worked to keep my blood pressure at normal levels.

However, if this new research is to be believed, I may well have been going about this the wrong way by reducing my salt levels too far.  I have read several articles written by Dr. DiNicolatonio and I am sharing excerpts from two that I suggest you read and consider.

I am not suggesting that you suddenly dive into the salt pot and certainly not to stop taking any medication. I am however excited to discover more about this line of research and will be looking into it in more detail when the book is published.

Top scientist says all you’ve been told about salt is WRONG: It won’t give you a heart attack – while having too little will make you fat and ruin your sex life

For more than 40 years, we’ve been told eating too much salt is killing us. Doctors say it’s as bad for our health as smoking or not exercising, and government guidelines limit us to just under a teaspoon a day.

We’re told not to cook with it and not to sprinkle it on our meals. The white stuff is not just addictive, goes the message — it’s deadly. Too much of it causes high blood pressure, which in turn damages our hearts. We must learn to live — joylessly, flavourlessly but healthily — without it.

Well, I’m here to tell you that all of that is wrong. As a leading cardiovascular research scientist — based at Saint Luke’s Mid-America Heart Institute, Missouri — I’ve contributed extensively to health policy and medical literature.

I am associate editor of the British Medical Journal’s Open Heart, published in partnership with the British Cardiovascular Society, and I sit on the editorial advisory board of several other medical journals.
In my work, I’ve examined data from more than 500 medical papers and studies about salt. And this is what I’ve learned: there was never any sound scientific evidence to support this low salt idea. What’s more, as I explain in my new book, eating too little of it can cause insulin resistance, increased fat storage and may even increase the risk of diabetes — not to mention decreasing our sex drive.

Current daily guidelines limit you to 2.4g of sodium, which translates to 6g of salt (or sodium chloride) or slightly less than a teaspoonful.

If you have high blood pressure, or belong to a group considered to be at greater risk of developing it — such as being over 60 or Afro-Caribbean — doctors even advise you to cut your intake to two-thirds of a teaspoon of salt per day.

Yet salt is an essential nutrient that our bodies depend on to live. And those limits go against all our natural instincts. When people are allowed as much salt as they fancy, they tend to settle at about a teaspoon-and-a-half a day. This is true all over the world, across all cultures, climates and social backgrounds.

Read the rest of the article: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4546722/Salt-won-t-heart-attack-says-scientist.html

The Mineral Deficiency That’s Making You Gain Weight by Dr James DiNicolantonio

“Salted foodstuffs make people slim, whereas sweet ones make them fat.” —Pliny (A.D. 23 to A.D. 79), an ancient Roman author and philosopher

We’ve been told for decades to hold the salt at the dinner table for the sake of our hearts and blood pressure. The anti-salt campaign has blurred the picture about what salt actually does for us—besides making everything taste better. Salt is an essential mineral that has many vital functions in the body, which I go into more in my new book, The Salt Fix. Since we lose salt every day through sweat and urine, we need to consume some salt in order to live.

What happens when we aren’t getting the salt we need?

When our bodies become depleted in salt, the brain seems to react by sensitizing the reward system—and not just the reward system for salt, but the same reward system that drives us to other pleasurable activities. The purpose of that sensitization is that when we eat salt it induces a greater reward than usual, leading to an increase intake of salt. This primitive “reptilian” response in the brain is over 100 million years old and it has carried over from our ancient ancestors. Its goal is to keep us alive by preventing or quickly fixing a salt deficit in the body. In other words, the brain controls our salt fix.
In our modern world, though, this reward system, intended to save our lives after salt deficit, could be inadvertently leading to weight gain, and even obesity.

Read the rest of this revolutionary post on the subject of salt in our diet: https://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/is-salt-deficiency-contributing-to-the-obesity-epidemic

The Salt Fix by Dr James DiNicolantonio, to be published by Piatkus Books on June 6 at £13.99.

Dr. James DiNicolantonio, PharmD, is the author of The Salt Fix, and a cardiovascular research scientist and doctor of pharmacy at Saint Luke’s Mid-America Heart Institute in Kansas City, Missouri. A well-respected and internationally known scientist and expert on health and nutrition, he has contributed extensively to health policy and medical literature. He serves as the associate editor of British Medical Journal’s Open Heart, a journal published in partnership with the British Cardiovascular Society. He is also on the editorial advisory board of several other medical journals, including Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases and International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (IJCPT). For more information on Dr. DiNicolantonio, please visit http://www.thesaltfix.com.

Available for pre-order: https://www.amazon.com/Dr.-James-DiNicolantonio/e/B0711HJV9C

And another reason to ‘Cook from Scratch’ based on a Russian study.

Do you believe high amounts of salt provoke thirst and contribute to high blood pressure and heart disease? If so, you’re likely wrong. Studies have consistently failed to support either of these notions, showing the converse is actually true. Here’s a summary of findings that may surprise you:

• Eating large amounts of salt will not make you thirsty or cause greater urine output (which could lead to dehydration). A study1 involving Russian cosmonauts reveal eating more salt actually lowered their thirst — yet increased hunger.2,3 Recent animal research4 support these results, showing a high-salt diet resulted in increased metabolism, forcing the animals to eat 25 percent more calories just to maintain weight. This suggests salt may have a surprising influence on your weight

• Evidence shows having the correct potassium to sodium balance influences your risk for high blood pressure and heart disease to a far greater extent than high sodium alone, and processed foods are typically low in potassium and high in sodium

• Studies suggest a low-salt diet can actually worsen cardiovascular disease and raise rather than lower the risk for early death among patients at high risk of heart disease5

• The vast majority, approximately 71 percent, of your salt intake comes from processed food.6 Hence, if you avoid processed foods, you have virtually no risk of consuming too much salt.7 Eating a whole food diet will also ensure a more appropriate sodium-to-potassium ratio

• When lowering salt in processed foods, many manufacturers started adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) instead — a flavor enhancer associated with obesity, headaches, eye damage,8 fatigue and depression. Due to its ability to overexcite neurons, MSG may even raise your risk for neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Lou Gehrig’s disease

Read the rest of the article here: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/05/29/salt-health-effects.aspx?

About Dr. Joseph Mercola

Dr. Joseph Mercola is a New York Times bestselling author with a shelf of books on health.

My motivation, whether you are a member of the Mercola.com community or have just heard about me for the first time, is to make you as healthy as you can possibly be. This involves:

Providing the most up-to-date natural health information and resources that will most benefit you and,

Exposing corporate, government, and mass media hype that diverts you away from what is truly best for your health and often to a path that leads straight into an early grave.

Mercola.com is not, in other words, a tool to get me a bigger house and car, or to run for Senate. I fund this site, and therefore, am not handcuffed to any advertisers, silent partners, or corporate parents.

Read the rest of Dr. Mercola’s impressive C.V. here: http://www.mercola.com/forms/background.htm

A reminder again that this is not a recommendation that you stop taking medication and suddenly start eating high levels of salt. But, as always I do recommend that you stay away from industrially produced foods and add salt to your food as you prepare and then eat.

Whilst you may spend a little more time in the kitchen preparing fresh ingredients think of it in terms of adding years to your lifespan!

 

Men’s Health Week Revisted – Key Risk Factors for major and fatal diseases – Number 1 – Obesity


men's health

Welcome to the second in the posts from Men’s Health Week last year and I hope that you will find the articles useful and informative.  If you read them last year then I would be grateful if you would still share on social media to reach a new audience.

On saturday I gave you some statistics that are pretty concerning.

An estimated 56 million people die each year worldwide.Tragically, 6 million children die before the age of five years old and of the remaining 50 million, more men than women will die at certain life stages. Particularly during the years 18 to 24. After that it will converge.

However, assuming that there is a more or less an even division, it is estimated that 25 million men will die in the next twelve months. It is even more disturbing that 65% to 75% of those men, depending on the report, will die from noncommunicable diseases.

Noncommunicable includes the top four diseases – Cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung diseases. Diseases that are usually lifestyle related.

That means that in the next twelve months 16.25 million to 18.75 million men will die from mainly preventable diseases. Or diseases that if detected early enough can be cured.

There is rarely just one factor that triggers a lifestyle related disease. It is usually a combination of all the following. However, there is no doubt that obesity not only impacts our size but also severely impairs the functions of both organs and operating systems in the body.

When I weighed 330lbs, twenty-five years ago, being that overweight was not common. The reasons were simply put down to eating too much. I discovered during my studies and my own weight loss that there were a number of factors in play. Today the rise in obesity has at least provided plenty of scope for intensive and desperate research programmes!

Being overweight in itself leads to the other six risk factors that I shall be covering.  I have therefore put it into pole position. I have written a number of posts on the subject that I have linked to and the serialisation of my own book. However, the decision for you to lose weight is not mine… but YOURS.

Do the simple sum below and determine if you are overweight. If you need to lose more than three stone you are obese and therefore at far greater risk of the other factors that could develop into a life threatening condition.

Scare tactics? Absolutely.  And if a doctor had not scared the wits out of me 22 years ago that pushed me to study and to change my lifestyle… I would not be here today.  I already had the other six risk factors.  Today I do not.

It is as simple as that.

Here are the seven main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes and other potentially fatal conditions.

  1. Being more than two to three stone overweight.
  2. Late diagnosis of fatal diseases
  3. High Blood Pressure,
  4. Poor balance between LDL (unhealthy) and HDL (healthy)cholesterol
  5. High Blood Glucose Levels.
  6. Low Exercise levels.
  7. Stress

Risk factor Number One – Obesity

Being more than two to three stone overweight puts enormous pressure on your body structurally and also on your major organs. Unhealthy fat is not just stored under your skin but around major organs and is especially dangerous if around your middle. A beer belly is not about the beer but is about the sugars.

The closer you are to a healthy weight the lower your risk for most of the major and fatal health issues such as cardiovascular disease, cancers and diabetes.

There are a number of ways to measure your weight but it can get complicated. I use this method for a quick and dirty check on weight.

Using the method for a medium framed men

As a base, use 106lbs up to five foot and then 7lbs for every inch over that height. Modify either way by 5% if you have a light frame or heavy frame.

A light framed man of 5’ 6” would have an optimum weight of: 106lbs + 70lbs = 176lbs Subtract 5% for light frame = 9lbs -This gives an optimum weight of 167lbs or 75.9Kilos.

Most of you will know if you are light, medium or large frame build but if you are unsure here are a couple of sites that will guide you through the process.

Take your wrist measurement with a tape measure and plug in with your height.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/17182.htm

http://www.healthstatus.com/calculate/fsz

Further Information.

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/dietandphysicalactivity/bodyweightandcancerrisk/body-weight-and-cancer-risk-effects

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=39840

Safe weight loss.

Dieting is as individual as we are and if you do need to lose weight safely and healthily then I do suggest that you join a group or find a qualified weight loss counsellor. Please do not use diet programmes that are chemically formulated, often full of sugar and have little nutritional content for your body’s needs. You are simply contributing to the billion dollar diet industry. For the same money you could buy an huge amount of fresh produce.

It is very important that you do not suddenly stop eating. You need a balanced and varied diet that supplies you with all the nutrients you need to be healthy.  This means cutting out the Industrially prepared foods and sticking to natural fresh vegetables, fruit, protein, eggs, dairy and some wholegrains. It definitely means cutting out the refined sugars that are loaded into prepared foods including those using artificial sweeteners.  These have the same effect on your body as actual sugar an can also be toxic.

I will be starting one of my six week weight loss programmes on the blog starting in a couple of weeks and that is aimed at losing a stone in that time safely and eating great food prepared well.

Next time another reason that men are at greater risk from early death. Millions of men do not go to a doctor in the early stages of a disease. This late diagnosis is costly.

Thank you for dropping by and please feel free to comment and share.

©sallygeorginacronin 2015

 

The Medicine Woman’s Larder – The Banana – Pre-Wrapped nutrient boost on the go


Medicine Womans larder

The banana is not only a superfood packed with nutrients but it is also a definite winner in the therapeutic arena. The fruit has been around for at least a couple of thousand years and many cultures have used the banana in their fight against illness.

I cannot tell you have many times as a therapist I have been told by a new client that they were told to give up bananas because they were fattening. On inspection of their food diaries however, it was amazing how many little bars of chocolate, low fat chocolate puddings and other treats had been allowed so that there was no sense of deprivation at the end of the day. Stuff and nonsense. The banana is not only nutritionally packed it is also useful for minor ailments. It is beautifully packed and can travel anywhere with you including in a child’s lunchbox instead of little chocolate treats.

bananas

Health benefits.

The banana has many talents including keeping your bowels healthy, reducing your risk of heart disease and strokes, protecting you from ulcers, improving blood pressure, boosting your energy and your mood and help you reduce water retention.

More specifically the banana is a medicine cabinet in its own right. If we look at the diverse diseases and conditions that it is connected to you will realise how important it is in your diet.

Anaemia is the result of a lack of haemoglobin the oxygen-carrying agent in red blood cells. Iron is essential in the manufacture of this haemoglobin in the bone marrow and bananas are high in this mineral.

High blood pressure and stress related conditions effect many people and not just as they age. More and more children and young adults are showing signs of following a poor diet, high in junk food and low in natural fresh produce. Junk food is high in salt, which in the form of sodium and in excess causes elevated blood pressure.

The potassium in bananas helps lower blood pressure by dilating blood vessels, enhancing he excretion of water and sodium from the body and suppressing the hormones that cause elevations in blood pressure.

Potassium helps normalise the heartbeat, sends oxygen to the brain and regulates water balance. When we are stressed our metabolic rate increases, reducing our potassium levels and by eating a banana we can help re-balance all these symptoms in one snack.

Depression and nervous conditions can be helped by eating bananas as they contain tryptophan, a protein that converts into serotonin. Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that makes you relax and improves your mood. The B vitamins in the fruit are also essential for a healthy central nervous system.

Heartburn is eased by eating a banana due to its antacid effect, and it has the added benefit of not causing stomach problems when used long term.

Ulcers in the stomach are very delicate and the banana is one of the few foods that can be eaten raw without causing any further distress or inflammation to the ulcer site. It also reduces over acidity and the irritation this causes to the lining of the stomach.

PMS is dreadful, not just for the woman concerned, but usually for the family around her. Eating a banana with its B6 not only helps alleviate the stress symptoms but also works to regulate the hormones causing the problem.

Weight loss – Contrary to popular belief that the banana is fattening, it actually provides one of the most complete meals in history for only 120/150 calories for a large banana.. As weight can be related to stressful environments, a banana is also very good as a work place snack to help you get through the day; without resorting to more unhealthy comfort foods.

Morning sickness and hangovers whilst hopefully not connected, tend to afflict us in the morning when blood sugar levels are likely to be low. Eating a banana is said to help stabilise this, and if you blend your banana with some milk and honey, you will also soothe and hydrate your body whilst calming the stomach.

Smoking – Cigarettes are tough to give up. I know having gone through the withdrawal symptoms myself 25 years ago. If you can manage without a nicotine patch, you might think about including a banana in your diet every day or when you have a craving. Not only will all the nutrients give you an energy boost but also the potassium and magnesium in the banana will help with your withdrawal symptoms including stress.

Warts and mosquito bites can be unsightly and the bites very itchy and whilst there are some products available in the pharmacies there are some old fashioned remedies that are worth mentioning. It is said that if you wrap the inside of the banana skin around a wart that it will disappear and it is reported that rubbing the inside of the skin over mosquito bites will take down the swelling and irritation. I cannot personally attest to that one but it won’t hurt to try.

As you can see the banana is a very useful ally in efforts to prevent illness and to help our bodies fight conditions when they occur. It is not the complete answer, as it needs to be included in a diet that contains all the essential elements. It is also not intended to take the place of necessary medication for serious illnesses. It is part of the wonderful pharmacy that we have available at our fingertips and should be enjoyed in as many ways as possible.

Thanks for dropping by and please feel free to share.

©sallycronin Just Food for Health 2007

Smorgasbord Health – Mineral of the Week – Sodium.


smorgasbord health

Sodium is an essential macro-mineral that along with potassium helps to regulate the body’s fluid balance. It is an electrolyte (cation), which is a positively electrically charged atom that performs essential tasks within each cell.

Electrolytes control our blood pressure and blood volume. The kidneys will remove any excess fluid in your blood by drawing the fluid across cell walls. Sodium along with potassium is needed to complete this vital function by passing this fluid through the walls of the blood vessels and into the kidneys. Once sufficient fluid has collected in the kidneys it is expressed onwards to the bladder and excreted as urine.

We also need sodium for normal nerve function, without it there would be no electrical impulses travelling along our nerves necessary to enable muscles to contract. This is done by an exchange pumping motion in the membranes of the cells. Sodium out and potassium in.

If the balance of potassium and sodium is thrown out by an excess of either mineral it can result in some common but potentially dangerous health conditions including high blood pressure.

Why we are rarely deficient in sodium.

Unlike other minerals, sodium or sodium chloride (table salt) has a very recognisable and almost addictive taste. It is very widely used in all processed foods and it is very easy to consume unhealthy amounts in our diet.

One of the main medical conditions associated with excessive sodium intake is very high blood pressure and heart disease so keeping a check on our intake is vitally important. This is one of the leading causes of premature death that can easily be prevented by making some small but significant changes to your lifestyle.

If you are trying to lose weight you may find that reducing your sodium intake will allow you to lose a great deal of water that has been retained in the cells due to the high level of salt in the blood.

Sodium deficiency is rare and in fact it is estimated that we are consuming at least 5 times the amount of sodium that we should be.

What are the recommendations for sodium intake.

The current recommendation is under 2,400 mg of sodium per day, which is approximately one level teaspoon of table salt. If I give you some comparisons for processed foods versus fresh foods you will see how quickly you can take in far more than your body needs.

Half a can of baked beans contains 504mg of sodium – fresh contains 5mg of sodium
Half a can of mushrooms contains 400 mg of sodium – fresh contains 1mg of sodium
Half a can of tomatoes with spices is 600mg of sodium- homemade would be 4mg of sodium.
3oz of salty bacon contains 1,197 mg of sodium – fresh pork chop 54mg of sodium
A chicken frozen dinner contains 2,500 mg of sodium – freshly prepared 50mg of sodium.
Packet of dry minestrone soup contains 6,400mg – freshly prepared 100mg.

Some other foods that we might eat on a regular basis have equally horrifying amounts of sodium including baked ham 3oz = 840mg, French salad dressing 2 tablespoons = 438mg, half jar of Alfredo pasta sauce =1080mg, half can of chicken noodle soup = 1160mg.

How can we reduce the salt in our diets.

As you will know having read the articles and diet recommendations on the website and in this magazine, I am not keen on processed foods. Apart from the fact you have little or no idea exactly where the food has come from you certainly do not have full knowledge of the manufacturing processes or the number of people who have been involved in the finished product.

We now have labels on food and for the most part, although they seem to be written in stupidly small print (mainly because there are so many ingredients they have not got room on the jar) we can find out how much of a certain additive there is in any processed foods that we buy.

There are sodium reduced products on the market but be careful about the substitutes that have been use to produce this supposedly safe product. One of the most popular taste additives is MSG (monosodium glutamate) and that can sometimes be slipped in without you recognising it.

  • Only eat canned soups, broths and stock cubes rarely unless you are sure they are sodium reduced or free.
  • Avoid bacon and cured meats on a regular basis.
  • Avoid salty snacks.
  • Use salt free butter or olive oil.
  • Check the sodium contents on any processed foods that you buy and choose the lower sodium brands. This applies to mineral water, which can have as much as 60mg of sodium per 100ml. That is 1200mg per 2 litre bottle which easy to drink on a hot day.
  • Make eating takeaways an exception not the rule.
  • Use fresh fruit, vegetables, meat, fish and chicken products rather than canned or pre-prepared.
  • Instant cereals, breakfast cereals, instant rice, pastas etc usually have high levels of sodium.
  • All sauces like ketchup are very high so only use a bare amount on the side of your plate rather than on your food.
  • Always get sauces on the side when you are in a restaurant and use only the barest to give a taste to your food.
  • If you are cooking for the family use a pot of salt containing 1/2 level teaspoon of salt for each family member. Remember that if you all have had breakfast cereal that you will have already consumed sodium during the day so ½ teaspoon per person for cooking will help to keep the total levels down.
  • Be aware of aliases in the form of monosodium glutamate, sodium nitrate, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and sodium benzoate.

©sallycronin Just Food for Health 2009

Thanks for dropping by and hope you have found this of interest.. as always your comments are the icing on the cake…Sally