Smorgasbord Health 2017 – Top to Toe – The Skeleton -The progresson of Osteoporosis over 50.


health column final

As we get into our middle years and with a reduction in protective hormones a lifetime of inadequate nutrition and weight bearing exercise can lead to a weakened skeleton.  As our bones become less dense we are at risk of fractures and loss of joint flexibility.

Osteoporosis is more prevalent in women than men but affects both.  Last time I covered some of the nutrients needed to ensure dense bones and a strong skeletal structure throughout our lifetime. https://smorgasbordinvitation.wordpress.com/2017/05/11/the-incredible-structure-that-keeps-us-upright/  I am repeating the nutritional information at the bottom of this post.

Statistics for Osteoporosis

Worldwide, osteoporosis causes more than 8.9 million fractures annually, resulting in an osteoporotic fracture every 3 seconds.

Osteoporosis is estimated to affect 200 million women worldwide – approximately one-tenth of women aged 60, one-fifth of women aged 70, two-fifths of women aged 80 and two-thirds of women aged 90.

Osteoporosis affects an estimated 75 million people in Europe, USA and Japan

For the year 2000, there were an estimated 9 million new osteoporotic fractures, of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million were at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. Europe and the Americas accounted for 51% of all these fractures, while most of the remainder occurred in the Western Pacific region and Southeast Asia.

Worldwide, 1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures, as will 1 in 5 men aged over 50.

80%, 75%, 70% and 58% of forearm, humerus, hip and spine fractures, respectively, occur in women. Overall, 61% of osteoporotic fractures occur in women, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.6.

Nearly 75% of hip, spine and distal forearm fractures occur among patients 65 years old or over

A 10% loss of bone mass in the vertebrae can double the risk of vertebral fractures, and similarly, a 10% loss of bone mass in the hip can result in a 2.5 times greater risk of hip fracture

By 2050, the worldwide incidence of hip fracture in men is projected to increase by 310% and 240% in women.

The combined lifetime risk for hip, forearm and vertebral fractures coming to clinical attention is around 40%, equivalent to the risk for cardiovascular disease.

Osteoporosis takes a huge personal and economic toll. In Europe, the disability due to osteoporosis is greater than that caused by cancers (with the exception of lung cancer) and is comparable or greater than that lost to a variety of chronic non-communicable diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and high blood pressure related heart disease

  progression-of-osteoporosisThe progression of osteoporosis.

Unfortunately, as we approach middle age it is not just a few wrinkles and dodgy arteries we have to worry about.  Osteoporosis can develop in both women and men but women are at a higher risk over 50 and are four times more likely to suffer from the disease than men.

Osteoporosis is when the bones in the body thin and begin to develop small holes reducing the density. The bones also become brittle, leading to fractures. Some of these may go undetected as they can be very small. For example, if you suffer from consistent back pain, do not dismiss out of hand, as you could be experiencing very small hairline fractures in your spine. If the condition is not treated or diagnosed, these small compression fractures can cause a vertebra to collapse, a condition that is extremely painful and difficult to treat.

The progress of the disease is subtle. You reach maximum bone density in your 30’s and then your bone strength will slowly decrease naturally. Then add into the mix the reduction of both oestrogen hormones in women over 50 and the decrease in testosterone in men of a similar age, and you have a further loss of density.

Normal bone

normal-bone-micrograph

Osteoporosis affected bone.

osteoporotic-bone-micrograph

There are other risk factors to taken into account.

For both men and women, having a slight body frame and being very slim means that there is less bone to begin with.

Smoking from an early age for a lifetime will put you at higher risk.

Those suffering from certain eating disorders can show decreased bone density in their teens and 20’s due to vitamin and mineral deficiency. (I have seen a 16 year old girl’s x-ray showing the bone density of an 80 year old woman)!

There can be a family history of osteoporosis, if not mother then look to grandmothers.

If you have a history of repeated fractures then it may be that you have brittle bones and you will need to be additionally careful and under medical supervision as you move into middle age.

If you already suffer from rheumatoid arthritis you could be at a higher risk of osteoporosis.

Heavy alcohol consumption can lead to thinning of the bones.

If you have stopped exercising – especially weight bearing exercise that strengthens the bones such as walking regularly.

Last but not least is eating too restricted diet.  As we get older our appetites decrease naturally, we tend to reduce our weight bearing exercise, do not spend time outside in the sun obtaining Vitamin D, and we listen to nutritional advice which tells us to drop full fat dairy, cheese and butter from our diets!!

Diagnosis of Osteoporosis.

I believe that every woman over 55 and men over 65 should have a bone density test to discover where their bone health actually is following the reduction of the two hormones involved. The doctor will also take into account your medical history – particularly if you have had a number of fractures in the past. You should also have a urine and blood test to rule out any other reasons for bone loss and the blood test will show the levels of both oestrogen and testosterone.

A reminder of the nutrients needed to build and maintain healthy bone if you missed the first post.

As I have already mentioned in a previous blog there are certain nutrients that are essential for bone health and I gave brief notes about them. Today I am going to go into one of the most important vitamins for bone health and that is vitamin D. Also, a vitamin that gets little press but that also plays an important role in our bone health and that is Vitamin K.

There is increasing concern that vitamin D (that incidentally thinks it is a hormone) is becoming deficient, particularly in children as we see a rise in the cases of rickets.

Once you have read the notes on this vital nutrient, you can identify if perhaps you are missing it in your diet or lifestyle, and if your family might be at risk.

Vitamin D

If ever there was a reason to get out and lie or walk in the sun for 40 minutes in the mornings, getting your daily recommended dose of Vitamin D is it. In fact, 3 hours in sunlight, spread over a week, in moderate climates, without using any sunblock is sufficient to boost your levels of what is known as the sunshine vitamin. However, you may need less, or more, depending on latitude, time of day and air pollution.

It is not advisable to lie out in the heat of summer in Spain, for example, for 3 hours without protection but you will still receive beneficial amounts through sunblock of under factor-8. Most of what we require on a daily basis is produced in the skin by the action of sunlight and many of us who suffer from depression through the dark winter months are actually missing around 75% of our required daily dose of 1000 IU.

There are a number of diseases that result from a deficiency of Vitamin D and over the years, since it was identified in cod liver oil, there has been increasing research into its role in the body.

In Victorian times children with rickets or bow-legs were a common sight. You rarely see this in developed countries today, although in Southern Asia there is still a problem. In adults the condition is called osteomalacia (soft bones) and it is estimated that millions of people who suffer from unexplained bone and muscle pain actually have this condition. There has been an increase in recent years in the incidence of rickets in the western world and some of this is down to the decrease in outside activity for our children.

More of them are kept inside for safety reasons, many no longer walk to school, go outside at playtime, have football or other team sports encouraged. They sit in front of the television or computer instead of playing in the street and when they do go in the sun they are plastered in factor 30 and above.

They also have too much fizzy pop in their diets and the chemicals in these are not bone friendly. We have gone away from the free school milk and there is too much sugar in our diets which is acidic and leeches mineral from the bones.

How is Vitamin D involved in our bones?

Our bones are living tissue that grows and regenerates throughout our lifetime. It is not static and old bone is removed and replaced with new bone continuously, a process that requires that the essential elements of bone to be available from our diet and from chemical reactions in the body.

There are four main components in bone that are needed to ensure it is strong and able to repair itself on a daily basis.

  • Minerals – Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus.
  • Matrix – Collagen fibres (gristle)
  • Osteoclasts – Bone removing cells
  • Osteoblasts – Bone producing cells.

If you ever made papier-mâché sculptures at school you will have used a chicken-wire framework, first of all, to establish the shape that you wanted. Over this you would have laid your strips of wet paper and allowed them to harden. The bone making process is very similar.

A network of collagen fibres forms the base and they are then overlaid with minerals. The strength of the finished bone is dependent on the amount of mineralisation that takes place. Osteoclasts will remove old bone when needed and this results in a need to produce new collagen matrix to attract new minerals for the repair process.

Vitamin D is essential to ensure that sufficient calcium and phosphorus is attracted to the new matrix and that strong new bone is produced. It begins its work in the intestines where your food is processed and assists in the absorption of calcium. If you are deficient in Vitamin D the bone becomes calcium depleted (osteomalacia) increasing your risk of fractures.

Unfortunately, if you are deficient in this vitamin more bone is discarded than replaced leading to soft and malformed bones.

Rickets, for example, is the result of soft and insufficient bone material in the legs allowing them to bend and stunting their growth. In adults the disease is called osteomalacia and because the symptoms are usually related to unspecific muscle and bone pain it can remain undiagnosed for years. This leads to chronic pain and the truth is that therapeutic doses of vitamin D may be the only treatment necessary.

Food Sources and supplementation.

vit d 2

Apart from sunshine, vitamin D can be obtained from a small range of foods including egg yolk, fish oil and liver. A glass of milk contains only 100 IU of the vitamin. It can be tough from just food sources to reach 1000 IU per day of the vitamin so getting out into the daylight on a daily basis is important. Certainly, I have found that taking good quality fish oil capsules over the years has been of benefit to me. There are supplements that you can take and if this is recommended it is usually in the form of calcium and D3 together to aid absorption. There is a new D3 spray for children, but I do advise that you ask a qualified practitioner or your doctor before you use.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is of particular interest to women in relation to osteoporosis risk because one of the causes of heavy periods is a deficiency of this vitamin. And if this has been a regular occurrence during fertile years, this deficiency could lead to early thinning of the bones.

There are two forms of the vitamin that the body can utilise. The first is K1 (phylloquinone), which is from plant sources and the other is K2 (menaquinone) which is produced by bacteria in our own intestines. This is where many of us get into trouble because we are not eating sufficient raw and unprocessed foods for health and additionally many of us suffer from bacterial imbalances in the gut so do not produce sufficient from that source either.

The vitamin is fat-soluble and is stored in the liver. Studies indicate that approximately 50% of the stores come from our diet and the balance from bacteria in the intestines. We need healthy bile production for efficient absorption of Vitamin K and our lymphatic system circulates it throughout the body.

Apart from helping reduce excessive bleeding during menstruation it is also used therapeutically for the prevention of internal bleeding and haemorrhages, including emergency treatment for overdoses of blood thinners such as Warfarin.

Blood clotting is a critical function in the body that solidifies blood to prevent us from bleeding to death from external or internal injuries. Vitamin K is essential for the production of a protein called prothrombin and other factors involved in the blood-clotting function and is therefore necessary to prevent haemorrhages.

Also, interestingly, Vitamin K activates other enzymes that decrease the clotting ability so it assumes the role of regulator within the blood stream. An example of this might occur if a clot forms within a blood vessel that could block the flow, and needs to be dispersed.

As the vitamin works within the body it changes from function to function according to the various interactions with enzymes and at one stage it acts as an antioxidant preventing oxidative damage to cells. There may also be a role for the vitamin in cancer prevention as it is believed it may stimulate rogue cells to self-destruct.

Bone Health and Vitamin K

The vitamin has also been the subject of a great deal of research in recent years as scientists discovered that it played a significant role in liver function, energy production in the nervous system, and in preventing bone loss as we age by assisting the absorption of calcium.

Vitamin K is needed to activate osteocalcin, the protein that anchors calcium into the bone, building and repairing the structure. A deficiency in the vitamin can therefore lead to brittle bones and osteoporosis.

Food sources for Vitamin K

vitamin K

It is very easy to obtain sufficient Vitamin K through diet and you will find that good sources are: Dark green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, broccoli and cabbage, asparagus, Avocado, Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Green beans, Green Tea, Carrots, Eggs, Liver, Potatoes and Tomatoes.

Although the vitamin is fairly resilient it is better to eat plant sources either raw or lightly steamed to obtain the maximum benefits. Freezing reduces the amount of the vitamin so you need to eat a little extra of frozen vegetables than fresh.

Final note is on exercise. Whilst it is preferable that your exercise is taken outside in the fresh air and sunshine, it is obvious that during the winter months this is not always a pleasurable option. Dancing, yoga, aerobics, jogging, walking and light weight training are all good forms of inside activity. Find the combination that works for you. There is also a plus to even 30 minutes exercise per day. It will keep your weight down and also stimulate your appetite. This will enable you to continue to consume sufficient foods containing the essential nutrients you need for bone health.

 

Please feel free to comment or share.. Thanks for dropping by Sally

 

Coughing and Spluttering and losing your hair? – Thyme for herbs.


As part of the Winterise your body I have been covering some herbs that might help protect or help alleviate symptoms should you get a cold or other infection.  Although we are now in the season to be merry…. there is an increased opportunity for interaction between strangers and we also tend to get more friendly at this time of the year… hugging and kissing friends and family may get you more than you bargained for.

If this is the case then having Thyme in your natural medicine cabinet is useful and as a side benefit it might help if you are going a bit thin on top…

It is also a wonderfully healthy ingredient to your cooking as you will see.

Thyme

This versatile herb can be used to flavour many wonderful dishes. As with most of our herbs, thyme has a long and revered history medicinally and if you had been a prominent Egyptian the herb would have been used to embalm you. Since the herb has antibacterial and antifungal properties it would have helped preserve the bodies beautifully.

index

The Greeks and Romans used thyme as a purifier, burning it as incense in rooms and added to their bathwater. It was also added to food such as cheese and alcohol – again probably because of its antibacterial properties and it may well be one of the first natural preservatives used in food manufacture.

It became better known in Britain in the 17th century and healers used the herb to relieve the symptoms of whooping cough, breathing difficulties, gout and mild stomach complaints. The oil has been used externally to help heal abscesses and during the First World War it was used to treat infections and relieve pain, as there were no antibiotics at that time.

Today the herb is cultivated all around the world and apart from cooking and medicine it is used in the manufacture of cosmetics and perfume.

How does thyme help the lungs?

As humans we have a sophisticated defence system to try and get rid of harmful substances before they can damage us. The cough reflex is an automatic response to mucus and infection in the lungs. Thyme helps the body with that job, and acts as an expectorant loosening the congestion and generally supporting the respiratory system. It also helps soothe coughs allowing a more effective use of the response, allowing the airways to get rid of more mucous. It is particularly beneficial for emphysema and chronic bronchitis sufferers. It can also be used in conjunction with other herbs such as cowslip to aid the absorption of thyme but also as an expectorant.

The list of thyme’s medicinal properties is quite lengthy but apart from its antibacterial uses it also is anti-fungal, antiseptic, antiparasitic, antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, immune boosting, sedating or stimulating according to dosage and is a tonic.

As well as upper respiratory infections and lung conditions it has also been used medicinally to treat colic, depression, arthritis, eating disorders, ear infections, gastritis, hay-fever, headaches, heartburn, parasites, shingles , tooth decay and tetanus.  There is traditional use for bed-wetting in children but as it is also a mild diuretic I would want to see evidence of that.  It does however; disinfect the urine which can be helpful for those who suffer frequent bouts of cystitis.

Taken an hour before meals, it may stimulate the appetite, useful for someone who is elderly or recovering from illness.

A useful treatment is one for alopecia – so if you are going a little thin on top you might want to try a little of the oil in your shampoo and conditioner. Might save you from resorting to other less effective methods..

bald before and afterIt certainly is very versatile but you do need to take care when using medicinally and consult an herbalist for the correct dosage.

The plant contains some helpful nutrients, the primary being Vitamin K which is why this herb does need to be used with caution.  Because it is so important to be aware of the ingredients of any herb that you take, here is a brief description of Vitamin K and its actions on the body.

Vitamin K

There are two forms of the vitamin that the body can utilise.  One is K1 (phylloquinone), which is from plant sources and the other is K2 (menaquinone) which is produced by bacteria in our own intestines.  This is where many of us get into trouble because we are not eating sufficient raw and unprocessed foods for health and additionally many of us suffer from bacterial imbalances in the gut so do not produce sufficient from that source either.

The vitamin is fat-soluble and is stored in the liver. Studies indicate that approximately 50% of the stores come from our diet and the balance from bacteria in the intestines.  We need healthy bile production for efficient absorption of Vitamin K and for our lymphatic system to circulate it throughout the body.

Apart from helping reduce excessive bleeding during menstruation it is also used therapeutically for the prevention of internal bleeding and haemorrhages including emergency treatment for overdoses of blood thinners such as Warfarin.

Blood clotting is a critical function in the body that solidifies blood to prevent us from bleeding to death from external or internal injuries. Vitamin K is essential for the production of a protein called prothrombin and other factors involved in the blood-clotting function, and is therefore necessary to prevent excessive blood loss.  Also interestingly Vitamin K also activates other enzymes that decrease the clotting ability so it assumes the role of regulator within the blood stream.  An example of this might be if a clot forms within a blood vessel that could block the flow and needs to be dispersed.

The vitamin has also been the subject of a great deal of research in recent years as scientists discovered that it played a significant role in liver function, energy production in the nervous system and in preventing bone loss as we age by assisting the absorption of calcium.

Vitamin K is needed to activate osteocalcin, the protein that anchors calcium into the bone, building and repairing the structure.  A deficiency in the vitamin can therefore lead to brittle bones and osteoporosis.

As the vitamin works within the body it changes from function to function according to the various interactions with enzymes and at one stage it acts as an antioxidant preventing oxidative damage to cells.  There may also be a role for the vitamin in cancer prevention as it is believed it may stimulate rogue cells to self-destruct.

When not to take Thyme as an herbal remedy.

Because of the high Vitamin K content and the effect on blood clotting you need to stop taking at least three weeks before having surgery. If you are also on medication that has this effect then you should not take the herb. For example, many people from middle age onwards are now being prescribed low dose aspirin to thin the blood so you should not take Thyme in an herbal form. Warfarin is a high dose anticoagulant and it would be dangerous to combine the two.

If in any doubt consult your doctor and always before taking any herbal remedy or check with a qualified advisor. If you feel that the person you have asked, in a health food shop for example does not appear to be informed, then, there should be an herbal reference guide in all dispensaries that gives the action and precautions of every remedy they sell.  If they do not have a guide for you to read then buy somewhere else. I have worked with A. Vogel herbal remedies for over 20 years. http://www.avogel.co.uk/herbal-remedies/ivy-thyme-complex/ is one you might try.

Read the instructions for dosage on the bottle which is dependent on age and health.

The other nutrients in Thyme that make it a useful component in your diet are; iron, manganese, calcium, and tryptophan.

Thyme is a versatile herb and it is wonderful with meat dishes. It is quite pungent so take care when using fresh thyme and only use a little at time.

If you have a cold I suggest making a tea with a small amount of leaves, seep for five minutes and then add fresh lemon juice and a teaspoon of honey. You will find it not only refreshing but it may also help prevent your infection reaching the next level.

You can buy thyme in capsule form and it often comes with another herb called fenugreek which is another expectorant and herb used in the treatment of lung disorders. The oil is used externally and is very warming when rubbed on the chest during bronchitis or pneumonia.

And on a lighter note…..

coughing elephant